The Two Sides of the Coin - The Act Settlement of 1701
I intend to write an article a day in August. The articles are about the history of political philosophy; So, I am publishing the articles on Proof of Brain.
The main feature of this publicaion is a collection of articles I've titled "The Two Sides of the Coin." These articles show that the left and right come fromt the same source.
This is an important topic as it shows why both Progressive and Conservative Administrations lead to centralization.
The first articles aimed to show the distinction between the Machiavellian World View and the Classical Liberal World View. The ruling class tends to be be Machiavellian, while the merchant class tends to favor the classical liberal view.
The Act of Settlement of 1701
The best place to lauch a study of the Left/Right split is with a strange piece of legislation called "The Act of Settlement of 1701."
England had experienced centuries of brutal civil wars. The Civil Wars usually centered on control of the throne. However, the wars tended to include a religious component with Protestants and Catholics pitted against each other.
Most of the members of the English Parliament of 1701 were Protestant. Their greatest fear was that a future King would convert to Catholicism.
The fear did not end with the proclaimed religion of King. The fear was that the liberal arts schools attended by the House of Stuart taught a curriculum favorable to the Catholic view.
When Quenn Anne passed away in 1714, the crown passed over the heads of her close relatives and landed on the head of Georg Ludwig (1660 – 1727) who was prince-elector of Hanover.
Hanover is in Germany. King George I was German. Legend tells that King George spoke broken English at best.
As mentioned earlier, the Act of Settlement was not simply about the religion of the king. It was about the education of the king. The Hanoverian Kings of England established a network of universities that were set on developing a new pedagogy.
The premiere school was Georgia Augusta University in the town of Göttingen in the German province of Hanover. Satellite schools include King's College London and King's College New York (aka Columbia).
The appointment of an German King over England had interesting implications in England.
The primary factions in the English Parliament were the Whigs and the Tories. The Whigs favored a strong parliament. The Tories favored a strong monarch. Many Tories supported the ideal of the Divine Right of Kings.
During the reign of King George I and II, the Whigs grew in power. A Whiggish parliamentarian dubbed Sir Robert Walpole became the leading minister of parliament. Walpole's consolidation of power created the position that we now call The Prime Minister.
George III (1738 - 1820) was raised in England and spoke English. After being crowned in 1760, King George saught to re-established the authority of the monarchy.
To stem the influence of the Whigs, King George appointed the Tory Statesman Frederick North to the position of Prime Minister.
England had depleted its treasury during the Seven Year War. This was was known in the colonies as the French and Indian War. King George III sought to tighten his control of the colonies with new regulations and taxes so that the colonies would pay for their fair share of the war.
The US Founding Fathers had a liberal arts education. They had studied Aristotelian logic along with the writings of Roman statesmen such as Cato and Cicero.
The founder were largely whigs and indepedents. Many descended from religious dissenters who left Europe to avoid religious persecution.
When faced with an increasing number of demands from King George III, the founders chose to respond by issuing a Declaration of Independence in 1776 and a Revolutionary War.
It is interesting to note that the first troops to rally to the King's cause came from Germany. Historians tend to label the Hessian soldiers who fought for England as mercenaries.
I find the claim absurd. The Hanoverian Kings of England came from Germany. King George was the titular ruler of a large section of Germany.
The German soldiers who fought for King George III would have seen King George as their king.
During the Revolutionary War, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson travelled to France to build support for the revolutionary cause. A successful alliance between the US and France brought an end to the Revolutionary War.
After the American Revolution, King George III was still the head of England and of the universities founded by the Hanoverian Kings. So, King George tasked the universities with creating a counter-revolution that would lead to the restoration of the King.
King George held a doctrine called the Divine Right of Kings. The Divine Right of Kings held that monarch's held divine authority over the king's dominion.
Just as German soldiers rushed to the aide of the German King of England in the Revolutionary War, an army of German professors rushed to the aide of of the primary financier of the German Unversity and began drafting ideologies that would create a counter revolution to restore the monarchy.
These German thinkers drafted a slew of modern philosophies that bear names such as socialism and progressivism. Tomorrow we will examine the philosophies of Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer and other early modern philosophers.
For the picture I present a public domain image drawn from Wikicommons of the true father of progressivism as he funded the research to create a counter-revolution that would restore the monarchy.
The king is dead. Long live the king!